History and Culture

Historically, bundling was a courtship practice in which, as a part of an ongoing courtship process, a couple spent a night together, usually in bed, dressed or half dressed. During the night, the young couple got to know each other intimately and sexually through various kinds of stimulation and mutual gratification. However, these were supposed to fall short of penetrative sex that could lead to pregnancy. The custom was practiced with either parental permission or at least tacit knowledge, and took place mostly in the female partner’s home. Most of the surviving evidence for the practice is from eighteenth-century New England. However, variations of premarital nonpenetrative sex customs similar to bundling are known from earlier times in many parts of Europe as well as other parts of the world. It is probable that bundling increased in Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, partly reflecting a high average age at marriage midto late twenties and a growing emphasis on affection. Essentially, bundling was a social mechanism that helped to insure the stability of sacred matrimony. In traditional societies, where divorce seldom took place, minimizing the risk of broken marriages was one aim of the courtship period. It was therefore accepted that the courtship, as a kind of trial period, included some sexual acquaintance, though amid constraints.

Colonial Copyright, Customs and Port Cities: Intellectual Property and Material Histories

Colette Hemingway Independent Scholar. Ancient Greek colonization began at an early date, during the so-called Geometric period of about to B. The Greek alphabet, inspired by the writing of the Phoenician sea traders, was developed and spread at this time. Greece is a country surrounded by water, and the sea has always played an important role in its history. The ancient Greeks were active seafarers seeking opportunities for trade and founding new independent cities at coastal sites across the Mediterranean Sea.

By the seventh and sixth centuries B.

Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein a couple get to The date is fairly casual in most European-influenced cultures, but in some traditional societies, courtship is a highly New queen generations will mate and produce their colonies if the queen runs out of sperm in her lifetime.

Arizona only became a state in , and the region—formerly part of Mexico—wasn’t even a U. The area is also one of the earliest inhabited areas of the country, with evidence of Hohokam settlements dating back thousands of years. All of these elements make Tucson one of the most culturally rich cities of the West and a mecca for history buffs looking for a truly distinctive lens into America’s past.

Expand your mind and see history in a new light as you observe ancient Native American sites at Murray Springs and Signal Hill, follow the trails of early Spanish explorers, witness a reenactment of the shootout at OK Corral, and travel deep into Arizona’s copper mining past. Aug Read More. What is Arizona’s official neck wear?

What is the state butterfly? You are here. Are you into binge watching? You might enjoy the 76 short videos on

American colonies

The earliest colonists — the Puritans who struggled for every mouthful of food and whose yearly death count exceeded that of any George Romero movie — did not have time for the frippery of love and courtship. Marriage was a survival pact. Courtship involved finding a woman of childbearing-ish age who had survived the previous winter.

In this system, the British colonies were moneymakers for the mother country. to British customs officials who were hired to regulate trade in the colonies.

On the cold, snowy night of March 5, , a mob of American colonists gathers at the Customs House in Boston and begins taunting the British soldiers guarding the building. The protesters, who called themselves Patriots, were protesting the occupation of their city by British troops, who were sent to Boston in to enforce unpopular taxation measures passed by a British parliament that lacked American representation. British Captain Thomas Preston, the commanding officer at the Customs House, ordered his men to fix their bayonets and join the guard outside the building.

The colonists responded by throwing snowballs and other objects at the British regulars, and Private Hugh Montgomery was hit, leading him to discharge his rifle at the crowd. The other soldiers began firing a moment later, and when the smoke cleared, five colonists were dead or dying—Crispus Attucks, Patrick Carr, Samuel Gray, Samuel Maverick and James Caldwell—and three more were injured. Although it is unclear whether Crispus Attucks, an African American, was the first to fall as is commonly believed, the deaths of the five men are regarded by some historians as the first fatalities in the American Revolutionary War.

The British soldiers were put on trial, and patriots John Adams and Josiah Quincy agreed to defend the soldiers in a show of support of the colonial justice system. Patriot Paul Revere made a provocative engraving of the incident, depicting the British soldiers lining up like an organized army to suppress an idealized representation of the colonist uprising. Copies of the engraving were distributed throughout the colonies and helped reinforce negative American sentiments about British rule. In April , the American Revolution began when British troops from Boston skirmished with American militiamen at the battles of Lexington and Concord.

1681-1776: The Quaker Province

Welcome to the Law Library of Louisiana’s online exhibit on colonial law in New Orleans from Our exhibit begins in with the founding of the city of New Orleans for the key reasons of geography and business. The French colonists at Biloxi and other settlements had difficulties with coastal storms, provisions, and poor soil for farming. Not only had the colony failed to make a profit, but a prior managing company had lost one million livres on its concession.

In the Crown and Company created the Superior Council, composed of Bienville and eight others, to govern the colony. Colonists had to buy all needed goods from the Company; trade with outsiders was prohibited.

Evolution of Maya culture Colonial period, A.D. Maya, although the solar calendar may have been known and used by the Maya before this date.

No other city in America keeps its history as vital and accessible as New Orleans. House after house, street after street, indeed entire neighborhoods, exude a rich sense of place, and serve as touchstones for fascinating history and complex culture. Look for it. In New Orleans, history can strut as loudly as a Carnival walking krewe, or creep as softly as a green lizard on a courtyard wall.

The nascent outpost became the capital of the French Colony of Louisiana in That same year, France ceded Louisiana to Spain, to keep it out of the hands of the British, victors of the recent French and Indian War. For the remainder of the s, Louisiana was a Spanish colony, and Nueva Orleans functioned as an important trading and cultural partner with Cuba, Mexico, and beyond. It was during the Spanish colonial era that New Orleans transformed from a village-like environment of wooden houses to a city of sturdier brick buildings with urban infrastructure, largely due to the unpaid labor of enslaved people.

Catalyzing the change were two disastrous fires, in and , which together destroyed over a thousand old French buildings. The Spanish also liberalized policies governing slavery, which enabled the dramatic growth of a caste of free people of color. Although no longer a French colony, residents in the new American city of New Orleans held tight to their Francophile ways, including language, religion, customs, a complex social strata, and a penchant for the epicurean.

The Creoles—that is, the locally born descendants of early inhabitants, many with French blood—created a sophisticated and cosmopolitan society that stood apart from nearly every other American city. From the streets of the French Quarter, to the Creole cottages of the Faubourg Marigny, to the Old Ursuline Convent and the former Charity Hospital, vestiges of French colonial times persist to this day. The flow of goods between the Gulf of Mexico and port of New Orleans attracted smugglers, privateers, and pirates, with Jean Lafitte and his brother Pierre among the most infamous.

History of New Orleans

Australia’s federation came about through a process of deliberation, consultation and debate. This in-depth paper explores the reasons for federation, the federation conventions and the referendums in which the Australian people decided to join together as a nation. In the cente of a ring of kangaroos stands a lion wearing a green jacket and carrying a cricket bat. His cap is printed with a Union Jack.

of pre-colonial Tswana culture with those of neighb. The article dating back at least to the nineteenth century stands in contrast to those of its neighbours.

Customs and excise duties were an important source of revenue, levied on goods from overseas and in some cases from other colonies. The port of Brisbane grew quickly so in the Queensland government agreed to replace its existing Customs House at Petrie Bight, a modest single storey brick structure, with a much grander edifice. Its grand public space, The Long Room, is surmounted by a copper sheathed dome.

The Brisbane Customs House is a fine example of Victorian Free Classical style, with its grand colonnades and portico, and a dome which still manages to be a major feature on the landscape, despite being overlooked by adjacent high rise office and apartment blocks. In the Customs House, which at its peak had staff, closed and custom activities left their symbolic home on the river for an office block up the road.

The Customs House is one of the few reminders that central Brisbane was once a great river port. Conscious of the heritage value of the House, the Commonwealth government negotiated a lease with the University of Queensland which agreed to restore the property, generously supported by donations.

Customs House History

The history of Belarus dates back to the Stone Age. This timeline of Belarus shows how Belarusian historical events have shaped the country today. The first signs of settlements in ancient Belarus date back approximately ,, years. The most significant Stone Age settlements have been discovered in the Gomel region.

The first signs of settlements in ancient Belarus date back approximately ,​, years. Belarus colonization by the Slavs began in the early centuries AD. they had settled over the entire region, replacing the earlier Baltic culture.

This article analyzes the historic relationship between religion and politics in Ireland by focusing on the impact of British rule in Ireland and its aftermath on the formation and evolution of Irish identity. My research suggests that one cannot appreciate the role of religion in Irish politics without taking into consideration the impact of British rule in Ireland. This article builds upon previous scholarship that explores the relationship between national and religious identity.

However, my argument focuses on the effects of British imperialism rather than other approaches emphasized in previous studies. I posit that the best way to understand how Catholicism became so linked with Irish identity is by focusing on the colonial experience. This approach builds upon a tradition of scholarship that emphasizes the social construction of identities 1. My analysis recognizes that Irish nationalists needed to construct or invent their identity 2.

The federation of Australia

Luang Prabang is an outstanding example of the fusion of traditional architecture and Lao urban structures with those built by the European colonial authorities in the 19th and 20th centuries. Its unique, remarkably well-preserved townscape illustrates a key stage in the blending of these two distinct cultural traditions. Su extraordinario paisaje urbano, muy bien conservado, ilustra una etapa clave de la mezcla de dos tradiciones culturales diferentes. Luang Prabang is een mooi voorbeeld van de vermenging van de traditionele architectuur en stedelijke structuren van Laos, met de structuren gebouwd door de Europese koloniale autoriteiten in de 19e en 20e eeuw.

Het unieke, opmerkelijk goed bewaard gebleven stadsbeeld illustreert een belangrijke fase in het mengen van deze twee verschillende culturele tradities. De stad ligt op een schiereiland — gevormd door de Mekong rivier en haar zijrivieren — in een kleibassin omringd door kalkstenen heuvels die het landschap domineren.

0. CrossRef citations to date. 1. Altmetric. Listen. Original Articles. Pre-Colonial East Africa: History, Culture and Physical Activity tribes with different languages​, cultures and customs, many sharing common cultural features.

All rights reserved. These men and women had been stolen from their homes in Africa, forced to board a ship, and sailed for months into the unknown. The first Africans in an English colony, their arrival is considered by many historians to be the beginning of a year story filled with tragedy, endurance, survival, and a legacy of resilience, inequality, and oppression.

These first Africans in Virginia were not the first Africans in North America, but they were a significant part of the ever changing Atlantic world during the colonial era. Their travels and experiences represent those of more than Their story marks an important historical transition, as the North American colonies began to turn away from indentured servitude and instead rely on chattel slavery. See also: It was America’s first colony. Then it was gone. On the west coast of central Africa in the s, the Portuguese were in the midst of a war with Ndongo, a powerful west African kingdom located between the Lukala and Kwanza rivers, in present-day Angola.

The people of Ndongo lived in developed cities and towns surrounding their capital city, Kabasa. The capital was where royalty lived, along with approximately 50, citizens. They captured thousands of prisoners to sell into slavery. These political relationships were spawned years earlier.

11 Most Bizarre Marriage Rituals Around The World


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